The History Of Coffee

Given how widespread coffee consumption is across the world, I became curious about how the drink came to be and the ways that it has evolved throughout time.

I therefore spent a week researching the history of coffee in an attempt to create the most comprehensive guide on this topic online.

It’s a bit of a long read so I’ll provide quick answers to the most commonly asked questions about the history of coffee at the start of the article (its right after the table of contents).

Table of Contents hide

The History of Coffee: Your Most Common Questions Answered

When was coffee discovered?

The first records of coffee being consumed by humans dates back to 575 AD. 

Where did coffee originate?

Coffee originates from Ethiopia. The Kaffa province in south west Ethiopia is where we can find the first evidence of coffee being consumed by humans.

Who invented coffee?

The Oromo people of Ethiopia were the first humans to consume coffee beans. Originally beans were mixed with butter into a paste. This eventually evolved into a hot beverage.

In which form was coffee first grown?

The coffee that was first grown in Ethiopia was Arabica. Robusta only started being grown in South East Asia following the coffee-leaf-rust epidemic of the 1870s.

When was espresso invented?

The first espresso was made in 1884 by Italian inventor Angelo Moriondo. Espresso brewed under 9 bars of pressure was first achieved in 1947 by the Italian company Gaggia.

When was coffee introduced to the USA?

Coffee was first introduced to the USA in the mid 1600s when the Dutch East India Company imported it from Java to New York (then called New Amsterdam).

The History Of Coffee Production And Consumption

The Origins of Coffee: 575 AD – 1000 AD

Where Did Coffee Originate?

Coffee originates from the Kaffa province of Ethiopia, situated in the south west of the country. 

Kaffa Province in Ethiopia
The Kaffa Province is highlighted in red


Coffee historians believe that the Kaffa province was the first place where coffee plants naturally grew for two reasons:

  1. All the different varieties of coffee plant found in the world can be found in the Kaffa province. This suggests that all coffee plants were originally exported from this location. [1]
  2. The name coffee appears to come from Kaffa. Importers from the Ottoman Empire used the word kaveh (Turkish) and kahvah (Arabic) to refer to coffee, and this is agreed by historians to be a linguistic distortion of the place-name Kaffa.

How Was Coffee First Consumed?

The earliest records of coffee being consumed by humans dates back to around 575 AD. 

The Oromo people of Ethiopia would crush coffee cherries, the fruit for which coffee beans are the pip, and mix them with either ghee (clarified butter) or animal fat. This mixture would be rolled into balls so that they can be carried on journeys and provide energy and sustenance for the road.

We can find the first records of coffee being roasted and brewed into a beverage at around 850-900 AD. 

At this time, several Ethiopian tribes living in the Kaffa province would roast coffee beans and create hot beverages, wine and even a maize based porridge with the roasted beans. 

By 1000 AD, drinking coffee beans brewed into a hot beverage was by far the most common way of consuming coffee.

The Legend of Kaldi and His Dancing Goats 

Although regarded as being just a myth by serious historians, many attribute the discovery of coffee to an Ethiopian goat farmer called Kaldi.

The legend of Kaldi and the discovery of coffee dates back to 850 AD – roughly when records of coffee first being brewed and drunk began. [2]

Kaldi noticed that his goats would become energised and excited (some versions of the legend would describe the goats as “dancing”) straight after eating the fruit of a specific plant.

Presumably experiencing FOMO from all of the fun that his goats were having, Kaldi tried some of the fruits himself. He too experienced greater energy from ingesting the fruit.

Excited to share his discovery, Kaldi picked a bunch of the berries and took them to his local Sufi Monastery.

The Sufi Monks initially disapproved of the consumption of the coffee berry and threw Kaldi’s berries into the fire. 

However as the coffee roasted in the fire, a gorgeous aroma filled the monastery. This smell was so tempting that it led to the monks retrieving the roasted coffee from the fire, grinding it up and brewing it into a drink.

The caffeine from the coffee gave the monks the energy and focus needed to pray all night, leading them to believe that coffee was a holy drink that could bring them closer to God.

Yeah…I’m not sure if this story is entirely true either, especially when we consider that although Kaldi was said to have discovered coffee at around 850 AD, the earliest records of the Kaldi story only date back to 1671 AD.  

Nevertheless, the story has cemented its way into folklore, and is the reason why a lot of independent coffee shops use dancing goats as part of their branding.

Early Trade of Coffee: From Ethiopia to The Ottoman Empire: 1500-1700

The first records of coffee being exported out of Ethiopia dates back to the early 1500s. There is conflicting evidence as to the exact year that this first happened, and these conflicting claims range from 1511 to 1519. [3]

At this time coffee was being transported by foot out of the Ethiopian regions of Kaffa and Harrar (where it grew naturally), to the Somali port of Berbera where it was then was taken by ship across the Red Sea to Yemen. [4]

The port where coffee first arrived in Yemen was in the city of Mocha. This is why the name Mocha is now synonymous with coffee.

Coffee Route Ethiopia to Yemen

The arrival of coffee in Yemen was the biggest catalyst of the drink’s surge in popularity across the Arab world. This was down to three reasons:

  1. Yemenis had relatively sophisticated farming techniques which allowed them to grow coffee on a much larger scale than in Ethiopia.
  2. Yemen had established trading routes with much of the Ottoman Empire. This allowed coffee to be traded easily with neighbouring countries.
  3. Coffee’s ability to keep people awake for long periods of time meant that it became very popular among Sufis who used it to keep themselves alert during nighttime prayers.

The status of the drink as a “religious intoxicant” among Sufis created demand for it in other countries where Sufism was popular at the time. 

By the end of the 16th Century coffee was being drunk and grown in Turkey, Egypt (where it was first sweetened with sugar), Syria and Persia.

Coffee House Culture During The Ottoman Empire: 1555-1922

Soon after coffee was introduced to the larger cities in the Ottoman Empire, the first coffee houses were established. Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), Mecca and Aleppo were cities where coffee houses were particularly popular.

The first record of an establishment selling coffee to customers dates it back to 1555 in Constantinople. By the end of the 19th century there were 2,500 coffee houses in Constantinople alone.

Coffee houses became an essential part of the culture of the cities that they populated.

Although only adult men were allowed to frequent coffee houses, they were able to break down some social barriers due to the fact that men of all socioeconomic classes were welcome.

Coffee houses gave an opportunity for uneducated men to become informed by engaging in discussion with more educated members of society.

Regular readings of the news occurred at coffee houses, meaning that attendees who were illiterate could become aware of current affairs.

Due to the influence that coffee houses, and the discussions that people had within them, had on public opinion more generally, the Ottoman government became increasingly interested in monitoring them and curbing people’s attendance to them.

From the 1600s onwards, there were frequent government propaganda attempts to paint a picture of coffee houses as seedy and even unsafe to visit.

Image of Ottoman anti coffee house propaganda
Painting linking Ottoman Empire era coffee houses with opium use

During the later Ottoman period (roughly 1800-1900) it was not uncommon for the government to hire spies to attend discussions in coffee houses and report any anti-government sentiment to the police.

Perhaps their fears were not unfounded, since an essay written for The Economist by academic Sarah Jilani discusses how the nationalist leaders who overthrew Ottoman rule in modern-day Greece, Bulgaria and Serbia “discussed tactics and cemented alliances” in coffee houses during the 19th Century.

Even today, coffee houses remain popular meeting places in Turkey, with the country’s Minister for Religious Affairs calling them “one of the most important creations of Turkish civilization.” [5]

The Introduction Of Coffee To Europe: 1526-1580 

Coffee was first introduced to Europe in 1526 where the Turks invaded Hungary at the Battle of Mohacs.

By the mid-late 16th Century coffee drinking had gained popularity in the majority of mainland Europe and Great Britain.

Coffee was introduced to European countries in three main ways. These were:

  • By invading Turks, as is the case with countries in the east of Europe like Hungary and Austria.
  • Through the importing of Turkish Muslim slaves in Southern European countries including Malta and Italy.
  • Through direct trade with parts of the Ottoman Empire, as is the case with France and Great Britain.
The different ways coffee was introduced to Europe from the Ottoman Empire

The biggest way that Europeans influenced the way that coffee was consumed was that they popularized the filtering of coffee before drinking, and the flavoring of coffee with milk and honey.

The removal of the coffee grounds prior to drinking is credited to the Viennese, and the Dutch traveller Johan Nieuhof is regarded as the first person to drink coffee with milk. [6]

Control of the Supply of Coffee to Europe by the Dutch: 1616-1870

The coffee beans exported to Europe from Yemen had always been par-boiled prior to exporting to make them impossible to grow. The exporting of fertile coffee beans was illegal so the Ottoman Empire could keep full control over the coffee market.

In an attempt to circumvent this law, Dutch traders, led by Pieter Van Der Broeke, began importing the coffee plant, rather than just the beans, out of Yemen in 1616.

Once the plants arrived in the Netherlands, they were able to be grown in a greenhouse in Amsterdam.

Realising that in order to mass produce coffee they needed a large amount of space with tropical temperatures, the Dutch transported coffee plants to some of their colonial territories including the East Indies (present-day Indonesia), Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka) and Surinam (now called Suriname).

The plant thrived in these territories, particularly in Java, the largest island in Indonesia.

By the start of the 1700s, the majority of the coffee imported into Europe came from Java via the Dutch East India Company.

The Dutch’s control of Javanese coffee ended in the 1870s when a coffee-leaf-rust epidemic killed the majority of the coffee plants on the island. This caused the Dutch settlers to leave their estates, and many of the labourers took over what remained of the plantations.

Even though Indonesia is still the fourth-largest supplier of coffee in the world, Java’s coffee production still cannot match its output pre-1780.

Fertile coffee beans were also smuggled out of Yemen to India by Baba Budan in 1670 with many plantations being developed in the south west part of the country as a result of this.

Coffee House Culture in Europe: 1650-1820

The first coffee house in Europe opened up at Oxford University in 1650.

London’s first coffee house opened up in 1652, with the first coffee houses in Venice and Vienna opening in 1683.[7]

European coffee houses were similar to Ottoman coffee houses in that they were almost exclusively frequented by men and were home to political discourse.

Many businesses were started in coffee houses, including British insurance broker Lloyds of London which grew out of Lloyds Coffee House in 1686.

Coffee house culture in Europe has been seen as integral to the rise of the Enlightenment period of the early 18th Century and the French Revolution in the late 18th Century.

A key figure in both of these movements, Voltaire, was said to have drunk up to 60 cups of coffee a day.

Coffee’s Expansion into the Americas: 1640 – 1840

Coffee was first imported into New York (then called New Amsterdam) in the mid-1600s by the Dutch East India Company.

Although there was some evidence of the emergence of coffee house culture in New York, largely inspired by the scene in The Netherlands, for the first 100 years of its coffee’s existence in US culture it was seen as a drink only for a select few privileged people.

All this changed in the late 17th century when the drink exploded in popularity. This is down to two reasons:

  1. In 1773 the British passed the controversial Tea Act, which gave the British East India company a monopoly on the tea market in North America. This made the consumption of tea seen as an unpatriotic act and another hot, caffeinated drink needed to fill the void. The hatred of the British rulers that this stoked in American citizens also led to the formation of the Boston Tea Party.
  1. The French had started growing coffee on their Caribbean colonies of Martinique and Saint-Dominigue (the latter being modern day Haiti and Dominican Republic) in 1720. By the 1770s these islands grew half the world’s coffee and allowed North America to import beans very cheaply.

Coffee production also spread from the Caribbean to Latin America in the early 1800s.  

Coffee production particularly took off in Brazil and Colombia. Their rapid growth in production can be attributed to the fact that farmers would burn down areas of tropical forest to create land for plantations. The burned plant matter made an excellent fertiliser for coffee plants.

Even today Brazil and Colombia are two of the three biggest producers of coffee in the world.

Coffee in Vietnam: The Newest Kid on The Block 

Coffee was introduced to Vietnam by the French in 1857.

The Vietnamese climate was perfect for growing coffee. By 1940 Vietnam was exporting 2,000 tons of coffee a year.

A combination of the Vietnamese War and Soviet agricultural policies drastically decreased the country’s production of coffee.

However, between 1986 and 2021, Vietnam increased their market share of coffee production from 0.1% – 17%.

This has transformed the economy of the country. In the early 1990s over half of the country’s population were living below the poverty line. Now less than 2% do.

Biggest Producers of Coffee in the World in 2021 (Expand To See More)

CountryAnnual Coffee Production (in metric tons)Percentage of the World's Coffee Production
Brazil3,378,00034%
Vietnam1,866,00019%
Colombia828,0008%
Indonesia634,0006%
Ethiopia445,2004%
Honduras408,0004%
Uganda357,0004%
India331,8003%
Peru240,0002%
Guatemala240,0002%
Mexico215,4002%
Nicaragua172,8002%
Malaysia120,0001%
China120,0001%
Costa Rica89,1001%
Cote D'ivoire88,2001%
Tanzania84,0001%
Kenya45,0000.6%
Papua New Guinea45,0000.6%
Thailand39,0000.5%
Laos33,0000.4%
Cameroon33,0000.4%
El Salvador31,6800.4%
Venezuela30,0000.4%
Philippines27,0000.3%
Rwanda21,0000.3%
Madagascar19,5000.2%
Burundi16,5000.2%
Ecuador15,6000.2%
DR Congo15,0000.2%
Guinea8,4000.1%
Dominican Republic7,5000.1%
Cuba6,0000.1%
Togo5,4000.1%
Sierra Leone4,8000%
Bolivia4,8000%
Panama4,6000%
USA2,1000%
Angola1,8000%
Jamaica9000%
Malawi6600%

The Evolution of Coffee Making 

The coffee that people drank in Abyssinia and the Ottoman Empire during the early days of the drink’s expansion was made through immersion brewing (coffee grinds sitting in water over heat) and with little filtering.

Coffee was often boiled several times to create a very bitter drink.

This method of brewing coffee is still popular today, largely being referred to as Turkish Coffee.

Sugar was added to coffee made in this way, particularly in Egypt. The first records of sugar being added to coffee date back to 1625 in Cairo.

1684: Coffee starts being filtered and mixed with milk

Although Dutch traveller Johan Nieuhof is credited to be the first person to mix coffee with milk in 1660, the practice was popularized by Viennese coffee house owner Franz George Kolschitzky in 1684.

Kolschitzky was something of a coffee pioneer, having also been the first person to strain coffee to remove the finer grinds from the drink. It is widely believed that the first coffee filters were improvised from woollen socks and then later made out of cloth.

Paper coffee filters, similar to the ones used today, were not invented until 1908 by Melitta Bentz, founder of the Melitta coffee company.

By the early 1700s drinking filtered coffee with milk and honey was standard practice in European coffee houses.

1750: Early Forms of Percolation Brewing Are Developed

In 1750 the French invented the drip pot – the first percolation brewer.

The drip pot brews coffee by passing hot water slowly though coffee grounds held in a cloth filter. It is remarkably similar to the drip coffee machines popular in the United States today.

Although these early brewers were mainly used in coffee shops, they did begin to allow people who could get their hands on beans to start making coffee at home.

1871-1930: Packaged Coffee Starts Being Available in Grocery Stores

Packaged coffee was first manufactured and distributed by American businessman John Arbuckle.

In 1871, Arbuckle patented a method of preserving coffee beans by glazing them in egg, as well as inventing a machine that automatically weighed, separated, packaged and labelled the beans.

This allowed coffee to be transported to all areas of the world and sold in grocery stores.

His innovations made the Arbuckles Brothers Company the largest retailer of coffee throughout the late nineteenth and early twentieth century.

Package of Arbuckles coffee

The popularity of packaged coffee also led to the founding of Folgers in 1872 and Maxwell House in 1892.

A similar trend occurred in Europe at this time with Probat developing the first mass coffee roasters in 1862.[8]

Although Arbuckle’s coffee preservation innovations had not reached Europe at this point, access to roasters meant that businesses could be set up to supply local grocery stores with roasted, ground coffee.

The growth of the “coffee at home” market led to Melitta Benz inventing and mass producing paper coffee filters in 1901 so people could make pour over coffee at home. 

The French Press and The Moka Pot also started becoming widely available in the 1930s as a result of the market created by coffee being available at grocery stores.

1884 – 1947: Early Forms of Espresso Start Being Made in Italy

The first espresso machine was created in 1884 by Italian entrepreneur Angelo Moriondo. The machine was first presented to the public at the 1884 Turin General Exposition.[9]

The significant feature of this machine, that separated it from previous coffee machines, was that it used steam to push water through coffee grounds at 1.5 bars of pressure, rather than just having water pass through the grounds using gravity as its only force.

The machine did not take off in popularity because the steam came in direct contact with the beans. This scorched the beans and made the resulting coffee taste burnt.

In 1901 two Italians, Luigi Bezzera and Desiderio Pavoni created a machine that could brew coffee under pressure and with a constantly controlled temperature of under 190 degrees Fahrenheit.

The fact that Bezerra and Pavoni’s machines could make single serve coffees quickly to order meant that they were adopted by Milanese coffee houses. However it was not until 1947, with the birth of Gaggia espresso machines, that espresso really exploded in popularity across Italy and Europe.

1906-1971: Instant Coffee Becomes Widely Available Creating The “First Wave” of Coffee

Although versions of instant coffee had been developed since the late 1700s, the product only started being produced on a large scale at the start of the 1900s.

Between 1906 and 1938 there were two main manufacturers competing for the instant coffee market. These were Faust Coffee and Washington’s Prepared Coffee, both based in the US.

In 1938 Nestle was approached by the Brazilian government to find a way of processing and selling their huge reserves of coffee beans.

As an answer to this problem, Nestle bought out a version of instant coffee that mixed coffee ground at a 1:1 ratio with corn syrup and then spray dried the resulting mixture. 

This spray drying meant that the instant coffee could last much longer without clumping or degrading. This product was called Nescafe.

Due to this increased shelf-life of the product, Nestle was able to become the sole supplier of instant coffee to the US Military, taking this mantle from Washington’s prepared coffee.

World War II meant that military demand for instant coffee was so great that Nestle had to build two production facilities in the US solely dedicated to the production of Nescafe.

Nestle’s huge production of instant coffee led them to pour money into a marketing campaign that made the drink popular across the country as well as with World War II allies UK and Australia.

This mass consumption of instant coffee is commonly referred to as the “first wave” of coffee. 

The first wave of coffee is characterised by coffee becoming seen as a commodity product and a staple in people’s homes. Price was the main factor behind consumer behaviour around coffee, exemplified by the fact that instant coffee that was bulked out with chicory proved popular in many markets.

As of 2020, instant coffee accounts for 9% of all the coffee shipped worldwide. It is the coffee is most commonly consumed in the UK, Australia, Mexico, Russia and China. [11]

1947 – 1977: The Gaggia Machine and the Rise of the Espresso in Europe

In 1947 there was a huge development in espresso-making technology as Gaggia released their lever operated espresso machine. This was the first time that water could be forced through coffee grounds under the customary 8-9 bars of pressure, creating the syrupy consistency and foamy head that we associate with the drink today.

The quality of coffee made by these machines, combined with their ease and speed of use, meant that espresso bars became the default meeting place for Italians in the late 1940s and 1950s.

Espresso bars were established in other countries in Europe in the 1950s and 1960s, and by the start of the 1970s espresso was the most popular way of brewing coffee in the majority of mainland Europe.

Gaggia also released the first espresso machine designed to be used at home in 1977. 

1970-2000: Espresso in America, The Emergence of Starbucks & The “Second Wave” of Coffee

Starbucks was founded in Seattle in 1971. Between 1971 and 1986 Starbucks only sold coffee beans (and not coffee drinks).

Starbucks started selling drinks when it came under the ownership of Howard Schulz in 1986. Schulz himself has said that living in Italy and seeing the popularity of espresso bars over there is what inspired his decision to sell drinks from Starbucks outlets.

By 1992 the company had expanded from 6 to 140 locations, and its value had gone from $3.5 million to $271 million. [12]

Number of Starbucks outlets across the world 1994-2013

Although Starbucks is not associated with high-quality coffee today, in the 1980s and early 1990s the company did significantly improve the standard of quality of coffee expected by North American consumers.

Prior to the 1980s North Americans rarely drank anything other than basic filter coffee or instant coffee. 

Starbucks, and their early competitors, changed the way that North Americans viewed coffee in two ways.

Firstly, the coffee shops introduced North Americans to espresso and a huge variety of espresso based drinks including cappuccino, latte, and Frappuccino. 

These drinks were not cheap, and their popularity made consumers comfortable with the idea that a coffee could be a luxurious treat rather than just a commodity.

Secondly, Starbucks premises were designed to be a place where people could socialise as much as just drink coffee. Starbucks interior design and atmosphere managed to introduce the European pastime of “meeting for a coffee” to America.

It was this changing of the view of coffee as a commodity that is drunk at home or at work, to a more luxurious social drink that can serve as the centrepiece of a social gathering that typified the second wave of coffee in North America.

2000 – 2020: Independent Coffee Shops and The “Third Wave” of Coffee

People’s growing taste for going out for coffee created a market for independently owned coffee shops to compete with the big chains.

Since coffee corporations’ economies of scale meant that independent coffee shops could not compete with them on price, these smaller retailers instead focussed on outdoing bigger chains on the quality of the coffee that they sold.

This increased focus on coffee quality really resonated with consumers. Between 1995 and 2020 the number of independently owned coffee shops in the US has increased tenfold, and these trends have been matched in the UK and Australia [13][14].

Some of the values popularised by these independently run coffee shops include:

  • Greater emphasis on where coffee beans are sourced and growing methods.
  • Increased consumer interest in how coffee is brewed, and the interplay between certain brewing methods and certain types of coffee.
  • The professionalisation of the barista and a moving away from fully automated brewing methods.
  • Increased scrutiny on the ethical sourcing of coffee, including both environmental and socio-economic (fair trade, for example) factors.
  • A hunger to make high quality coffee at home, increasing the market for high quality whole beans, espresso machines, coffee grinders and even roasters to use at home.

Many of these trends have been seen as a response to the corporatization of coffee drinking culture. It has therefore been dubbed the “third wave” of coffee, in contrast to coffee’s “second wave” which was characterised by large coffee outlets dominating the market.

The Three Waves of Coffee Summarised

Wave NumberEraKey valueCoffee that most demonstrated their values
First Wave1906-1971Coffee should be cheap, plentiful and easy to make at home.Instant coffee
Second Wave1971-2000Coffee is a social drink.Latte
Third Wave2000-2020Coffee is a high quality, nuanced product.Flat White

2020 – Present: The Impact of the Pandemic on Coffee Making and the Rise of the Quarantista

Given that the second and third waves of coffee were centred around going out for coffee at franchised outlets and independent coffee shops respectively, the pandemic in 2020 was sure to affect the way that people drank coffee.

Sure enough, 2020 saw the rise of the “quarantista”, namely people who have started making the coffee that they usually only drank at coffee shops, at home.

A survey by Mr Coffee found that in 2020 half of all coffee drinkers bought either an espresso machine or a drip coffee machine and that 60% of coffee drinkers can make a non-instant coffee at home. [15]

This has created a market for coffee machines suitable for home and office use, including pod coffee machines. 

It is not yet clear whether this will put a permanent dent in the market for drinking coffee out, or whether coffee shops or whether these outlets can innovate drinks that we cannot replicate at home.

2022: Coffee in the Present Day

Coffee is now the second most traded commodity in the world after oil. 

Across the world, 22 million pounds of coffee are drunk each year with this number only getting higher year upon year. [16]

Although the popularity of instant coffee is waning slightly, this is more than made up for by rising sales of whole bean and ground coffee, as well as (until the pandemic in 2020) coffee shop sales.

If you want to find out more about coffee, please visit our coffee statistics page.

References

[1] Adam Shehban: A History of Coffee. Retrieved from: https://www.academia.edu/27471430/History_of_Coffee

[2] Karla Roland: From Dancing Goats to the Daily Buzz: A History of Coffee. Retrieved from: https://faculty.etsu.edu/odonnell/2011fall/engl3130/student_writing/coffee_history.htm 

[3] Birsen Yilmaz, Nilufer Acar-Tec & Saniye Solzu: Turkish Cultural Heritage: A Cup of Coffee. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352618117301841?via%3Dihub

[4] Bennett Alan Weinberbg PHD & Bonnie K. Bealer: The World of Caffeine: The Science and Culture of the World’s Most Popular Drug. Chapter 1: Coffee: Arabian Origins. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=Qyz5CnOaH9oC&pg=PA3&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false

[5] Sarah Jilani: How Turkish Coffee Destroyed an Empire. Retrieved from: https://www.economist.com/1843/2019/02/26/how-turkish-coffee-destroyed-an-empire

[6] Heinrich Eduard Jacob: The Saga of Coffee: The Biography of an Economic Product. Retrieved from: https://books.google.co.uk/books/about/The_Saga_of_Coffee.html?id=3qjgAAAAMAAJ&redir_esc=y

[7] Kelly Intile: The European Coffee House: A Political History. https://scholarsbank.uoregon.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/1794/7463/Kelly_Intile.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

[8] Jonathan Morris: Why Espresso: Explaining changes in European coffee preferences from a production of culture perspective. Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13507486.2013.833717

[9] Jimmy Stamp: The Long History of the Espresso Machine. Retrieved from: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/arts-culture/the-long-history-of-the-espresso-machine-126012814/?no-ist

[10] Jonathan Morris: The Cappuccino Conquests: The Transnational History of Italian Coffee. Retrieved from: https://www.academia.edu/379110/The_Cappuccino_Conquests_The_Transnational_History_of_Italian_Coffee_2007_

[11] Roberto A. Ferdman: Almost Half the World Actually Prefers Instant Coffee. Retrieved From: https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/wonk/wp/2014/07/14/almost-half-of-the-world-actually-prefers-instant-coffee/

[12] Starbucks Company Timeline. Retrieved from: https://www.starbucks.com/assets/ba6185aa2f9440379ce0857d89de8412.pdf

[13] Statista: Number of Independently Owned Coffee shops in the US 1991-20115. Retrieved from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/196590/total-number-of-snack-and-coffee-shops-in-the-us-since-2002/

[14] Statista: Number of Coffee Houses in the US 2018-2020. Retrieved from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/1000058/number-of-coffeehouse-stores-in-the-us/

[15] International Comunicaffe: Half of Americans have become at-home baristas during the pandemic. Retrieved from: https://www.comunicaffe.com/half-of-americans-have-become-at-home-baristas-during-the-pandemic/

[16] Statista: Global Coffee Consumption worldwide from 2012/21 to 2020/21. Retrieved from: https://www.statista.com/statistics/292595/global-coffee-consumption/


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